PROTEUS

## CKHS-100: MAIN PAGE:   WEEKLY LOG AND PROGRESS

 These pages are using an older technology (Microsoft FrontPage). This allows me to add more material very easily, and to edit and adapt as we go along. It also remains running between courses should anyone wish to return to find some notes or slides! Free research dictionary! Click on this link to download the entire 5th edition, Dictionary of Epidemiology:

MAJOR TOPIC  NOTES, content details Materials Powerpoint, media and other links
SESSION

# 1

Sept 12

## DESIGN: OVERVIEW

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES AND

## PLOTTING AND DISPLAYING DATA

CENTRAL TENDENCY

Course Outline/objectives

* Participants' research experience - categorize

and brief discussion on objectives, scope, process

1.  Pretest sheet 1 page

2.  Outline 2 pages

3.  Research Design summary

4. Plotting practice sheet

CASE STUDY: onset curves for analysis

PP: STUDY DESIGN

PP: WHAT ARE THESE DESIGNS?

PP: PLOTTING DATA

Variables, categories (Input/outcome,

continuous/categorical)

Types of research:

*  Qualitative vs. Quantitative Domains

*  Experimental /intervention studies,

randomized controlled trials (RTC)

*  Longitudinal observational studies:

Prospective Cohort study

Retrospective Cohort study

Case-Control stud

* Cross-sectional studies (surveys, one-time obs)

* Selection criteria, starting "groups" with each

method; examples.

Plotting Histograms, onset curves - case studies and interpretation.

METHODS REVIEW=============================

Plotting data, histograms, normal distribution, central tendency: mean, median, mode...)

SESSION

# 2

Sept 19

## CENTRAL TENDENCY (contd)

QUIZ#1(10%) Issued

(take home): Central tendency/distributions and selecting controls

* Sensitivity & specificity

* Controlling

* during selection

* during analysis

CASE STUDY:  a CURIOUS OUTBREAK IN NEW YORK

*  Quiz sheet #1 issued

PP: STD DEVIATION

METHODS REVIEW========================

(Standard deviation, confidence limits, "normal distribution", importance and characteristics)

SESSION

# 3

Sept 26

QUIZ#1 Due back

DEFINING and selecting "CASES" & "CONTROLS"

RATES & RATIOS

WORKING WITH CONTINGENCY TABLES

QUIZ#2  Take home: Solving the outbreak using 2x2 tables

METHODS REVIEW============================

Risk Measures (Related Rates/true rel risk, Odds Ratio, attrib risk)

"Analytical" methods using 2x2 tables

* Chi-Square Test,

* Fishers Exact Test

* Rates, Ratios & Measures

Incidence/prevalence/duration

Mortality rates  (Crude MR, Age-specific MR,

Sex-specific MR,

Gender-specific MR,

Case fatality rate (CFR),

Proportionate MR,

Standardized MR

CASE STUDY: Glycols

* Quiz sheet #2 issued

MEGAPLATING to show bacterial evolution of resistance

PP: RATES

SESSION

# 4

Oct 3

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO MEANS

(T-TESTS)

* Appropriate use of t tests

* Distinction between paired and unpaired data

* Examples and practice from published research

CASE STUDY:

t-test practice sheet

PP t-test (Paired)

QUANTITATIVE METHODS REVIEW:

(comparing two means: t-tests)

Oct 10  NO CLASS
SESSION

# 5

OCT 17

QUIZ#2:  Due.

ANOVA

Further research design considerations.

Experimental and quasi-experimental study designs

CASE STUDY:

Research design: Atopic Eczema

PP. Quasi-Exp.Study designs

Challenge: study of patient-lifting as cohort-design

PP: ANOVA

Herd immunity

QUIZ#3: t-tests and ANOVA

QUANTITATIVE METHODS REVIEW:  ANOVA)
SESSION

# 6

OCT 24

QUIZ#3  due

BIVARIATE ANALYSIS:

CORRELATION AND REGRESSION

Case studies: critical review of published research*

* Case definition

* Sensitivity & Specificity

* Optimal selection of these 'descriptive' methods when designing investigations.

CASE STUDY:

SESSION

# 7

OCT 31

SURVEY RESEARCH:

sample selection

Sample size

QUIZ#4

Sample selection and sample size

SURVEY RESEARCH METHODS

*  SAMPLING METHODS:  Random sampling, Sample unit, Sample frame, Sample fraction, Sample error, Sample interval

Random error

Systematic error

*  Sample selection methods for survey research

Simple random sampling

Stratified sampling

Systematic sampling

Cluster sampling

Multistage sampling

Sample size calculations (1) The 'n' needed for reporting parameters with acceptable confidence (survey research)

Sample size calculations (2) The 'n' needed to find the effect if it exists: "Power Analysis"

Use of nomogram for 'power' analysis

CASE STUDY:

Nomogram sheet for power analysis

SESSION

# 8

NOV 7

Questionnaire design

Question writing, questionnaire design, administering the survey

CASE STUDY: Environmental arsenic poisoning

CASE STUDY: CRITIQUE: Dakota health department outbreak of URI among youth. published in ProMed (Handout)

SESSION

# 9

NOV 14

QUIZ#4  Due

## CONFOUNDING

QUIZ#5   (confounding)

QUANTITATIVE METHODS REVIEW:

(CONFOUNDING VARIABLES: DETECTION AND CONTROLLING

CASE STUDY:

to be announced

PP: CONFOUNDING VARIABLES

SESSION

# 10

NOV 21

(Can submit during the coming week but returns and comments will be first-in, first-out)

INTRODUCTION TO

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)

Quantitative risk assessment (QRA)

CASE STUDY

SESSION

# 11

NOV 28

QUIZ#5    Due May 4

Suggested submission date for (written) Research design protocol

* CAUSATION AND BIAS

* MYTHS AND MISUNDERSTANDING

1. From data to published tables: guidelines for constructing useful tables

2. Intro to program evaluation research

3. Biases, myths, and false claims (Including cancer rates)

4. From Koch to Hill: criteria for attributing causation

5. The Baloney detection kit

6. Special look at Wakefield

7. Ethics and 'informed consent'

8. Placebo effects

9. Designing a study from end to begining

10. Seven steps for health-risk communication

* Hill's Criteria and example sheet

CASE STUDY: Investigation of keratoconjunctivitis

* CKHS100 Post-test sheet

PP: From raw data to completed table

PP: CONTROLLING

PP: HILL'S CRITERIA FOR ATTRIBUTING CAUSE

SESSION

# 12

DEC 5

PRESENTATIONS

Discussion of Toxic Oil Syndrome