When authoring documents using Microsoft Office or Google Apps, there are a few simple principles that are relevant for almost all document types. These principles are meant to improve the readability and accessibility of your documents for individuals with disabilities.
Ensure hyperlinks are self-describing. “Click here” or "learn more" does not provide any useful information to someone using a screen reader, and does not make sense out of context. For best practice, hyperlinks should be descriptive, link to nouns that are specific in context, and try to be placed towards the end of a sentence.
Alternative (alt) text is used to convey meaning and provide context in place of an image, graph and other media. Blind and low vision users rely on the alt text attribute to understand the equivalent meaning of images, figures or other graphics in textual form. Alt text should provide a concise description conveying essential information about the image.
- Alternative text should be concise and meaningful.
- Usually, around one hundred characters or less.
- Use punctuation, as it can help make information easier to understand.
- Avoid phrases such as "image of…" or "graphic of…"
- Consider the context of the surrounding information when writing.
For more guidance on alternative text concepts and how to use correctly, please visit W3C's Images Tutorial., external link
Complex images and graphs
For complex images such as graphs or infographics that require a longer description, it's recommended to use the speaker notes section to provide an alternative description. Use the "Title" field to indicate the title of the complex image. Use the "Description" field to refer people to the speaker notes for the image's alt text.
Some people have difficulty perceiving or distinguishing text that has little contrast between the foreground and background. Use colour combinations with strong contrast, such as black text on white background. Avoid using light colours for body text. For more tools and resources on colour contrast, please continue reading the Contrast section on the Website Accessibility page.
Watch video tutorials on creating more accessible documents, workbooks and slideshows in Office, created by Microsoft.
The Ryerson Library provides an optical character recognition (OCR) online tool that can be used to convert "non-selectable" text files into machine-readable or recognized text. This will render your document readable by adaptive software such as text-to-speech applications. Non-selectable text or unrecognized text is an impediment to accessibility.
Note: Available to the Ryerson community only. Login using your my.ryerson ID and password.
- Access the Online OCR Tool
- Upload your document
- If your document contains multiple pages, check "Yes, the file is a multi-page document"
- Select the format of the returned file (PDF or DOC)
- Press Submit
The main objective of an OCR engine is to recognize the majority of the body text within a document. The following items may get misinterpreted by the OCR engine:
- Data from graphs and charts that feature text or shapes
- Low resolution or poor quality documents
- Hand annotations, underlines, scribbles, blurry or missing text
An OCR tool does not automatically recognize or apply semantic headings or provide alternative text to images.