• PCS 102 - Physics Answers to Everyday Questions
The physics of everyday life course is for liberal arts students who are looking to understand a connection between science and the world in which they live. This course offers a non-conventional view of physics and science that starts with whole objects and looks inside them to see what makes them work. What really keeps an airplane up? What is the sound barrier made of? Why does your shower curtain cling to you? Are smoke alarms radioactive? (May not be used as a credit towards a science degree) (Formerly SCI 104).
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Antirequisites:
• PCS 106 - Physics for the Health Sciences
An introduction to the physical ideas related to the fields of environmental and occupational health; mechanics, work/energy, fluids, sound, thermodynamics, basic electricity, the electromagnetic spectrum and nuclear quantities.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 0.5 hrs. Tutorial: 0.5 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
• PCS 107 - The Natural Context
This course offers an introduction to the application of basic physical concepts and processes in the physical world to the built environment. Basic concepts of physics are introduced in the context of the building project: gravitation, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, waves, and properties of materials. Structural concepts of applied loads balanced by structural resistance are also considered. The concept of natural versus controlled environments is introduced and implications are discussed.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
• PCS 110 - Physics
Units and vectors. Motion: linear, projectile, circular and oscillatory motion. Newton's laws: Force, mass and acceleration; work, energy and power; linear and angular momentum. Electrostatics: Electric force and field; potential and potential energy; capacitance. Electric current and DC circuits. Magnetic field and force: magnetic force on currents and charges; Hall effect; torque on current loops; Waves: classification of waves; energy transfer; light and electromagnetic waves; diffraction and interference. MAPLE used for simulation/visualization of physical phenomena and problem solving.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
• PCS 111 - Physics in the News
A presentation of important scientific topics to equip non-science students with tools to understand technical issues that affect humanity. The course content may include topics such as energy, global climate, space-travel, high-tech devices, national security and weapons systems which are introduced at a conceptual level and discussed in an accessible style with emphasis on critical analysis of contemporary sources. Topics covered may vary from year to year to reflect emerging issues and new developments.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Liberal Studies: LL
Custom Requisites: Not available to Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Students (with the exception of Architecture) nor Faculty of Science Students.
• PCS 120 - Physics I
A calculus based course covering fundamental physics concepts: units, vectors, linear motion, circular motion, force and motion, work and energy, collisions, gravitation, electrostatics, capacitance, and simple DC circuits.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Antirequisites:
• PCS 125 - Physics: Waves and Fields
Simple harmonic motion; motion of mechanical waves, wave speed; sound, Doppler effect, interference, standing waves, beats and resonance; gravitational fields and potential energy; electric fields and potential energy; electric potential; magnetic fields.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
• PCS 130 - Physics II
A continuation of Physics I, calculus-based course. An introduction to oscillations, mechanical waves, magnetism, electromagnetism, optics and nuclear physics. The laboratory is an essential and autonomous part of the course.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 120
Antirequisites: PCS 125 and PCS 211 and (PCS 102 or SCI 104)
• PCS 181 - Introduction to Astronomy
This course will examine astronomical ideas both in relation to their times and in the light of current scientific theory and technical data. Application of the scientific method will be emphasized in evaluating these data and theories. Method of collection and analysis of data will be presented to help the nontechnical student in asking fundamental questions about scientific theories. Topics covered include cosmology, origin of the stars and galaxies, evolution of stars, the solar system, exobiology, death of stars, stellar remnants and the age of the universe.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Liberal Studies: LL
Custom Requisites: Not available to Engineering students.
• PCS 182 - Life in the Milky Way Galaxy
The scientific method of investigation will be emphasized in topics relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life, from microbes to self-cognizant entities. The course presents current ideas concerning the origin of the atomic elements, star and planetary formation, environmental requirements and constraints, early cell formation and evolution, habitable zones, extremophiles, the potential for life in our solar system, exoplanets and their spectra, the Drake equation, intelligence, Kardashev classification, the Fermi paradox and related subjects.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Liberal Studies: LL
Custom Requisites: Not available to Engineering students.
• PCS 211 - Physics: Mechanics
Vector forces: forces along a line, coplanar force systems - essentials of vector algebra in two and three dimensions. Moment of a force; moment of a couple; principle of moments. Free body diagrams and equilibrium conditions. Centre of mass and centroids of bodies. Rectilinear and curvilinear motion kinematics. Newton's laws and equations of motion. Friction. Work and Energy; Linear momentum and angular momentum.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
• PCS 213 - Physics: Light and Modern Physics
Ray and wave models of light; reflection, refraction and interference; lenses and mirrors; diffraction and polarization of light; Planck's hypothesis, Bohr's atomic model, photoelectric effect, uncertainty principle, Schrödinger's equation; nuclear properties and binding energy; radioactivity; nuclear reactions.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 125
• PCS 224 - Solid State Physics
Quantum mechanics and quantum nature of solids, properties of materials. Band theory in metals and semiconductors. Conduction processes, the p-n junction, transistors and other solid state devices.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites:
• PCS 227 - Biophysics
Biomechanics principles. Physics of hearing and vision. Fluid mechanics and human circulatory system. Viscosity and viscoelasticity in biological fluids. Thermodynamics of biochemical reactions and metabolism. Random molecular motion in gases and solutions. Electrolytes. Molecular and ionic interactions in solutions. Membrane's structure and properties. Diffusion and osmosis in biological organisms. Electrochemistry of cells. Action potential and electrical activity of neurons.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 130 and MTH 131) or (PCS 125 and PCS 211 and MTH 140) or (PCS 130 and MTH 207)
• PCS 228 - Electricity and Magnetism
Fundamentals of Classical Electromagnetism. Electrostatics: charges, electrostatic force, electric field, electric flux, Gauss's law, electric potential, electrostatic energy, properties of conductors. Magnetostatics: Magnetic field, magnetic flux, electric current and Ampere's Law. Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction. Maxwell equations: electromagnetic waves and the nature of light.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1.5 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 130 and MTH 330) or (PCS 125 and PCS 211 and MTH 312) or (PCS 125 and PCS 211 and MTH 425)
• PCS 229 - Introduction to Medical Physics
Applications of physics in medicine. This survey course will address basic concepts of medical imaging, nuclear medicine and radiation isotopes, radiation therapy, gamma spectroscopy and trace element analysis, and biomedical laser applications.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 130 and (MTH 131 or MTH 310)
Antirequisites: BME 229
• PCS 230 - Photonics and Optical Devices
This course is designed to provide students with direct experience in the operation of optical devices that find widespread use in the technology sector. Emphasis is placed on geometric optics, laser systems, image formation, fiber optics, diffraction and interference.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1.5 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 130 and MTH 231) or (PCS 125 and PCS 211 and MTH 141 and MTH 240) or (PCS 130 and MTH 310)
• PCS 300 - Modern Physics
Special Relativity: simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity addition, rest mass, energy. Blackbody radiation: Boltzmann's and Wien's Laws, Planck's quantization. Photoelectric effect. Compton effect. Atomic spectra. Rydberg's formula. Thompson's and Rutherford's atomic models. Bohr's model of the atom.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (MTH 231 and PCS 130) or (PCS 125 and PCS 211 and MTH 141 and MTH 240) or (PCS 130 and MTH 310)
• PCS 335 - Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Thermodynamics zeroth law and temperature: thermodynamic systems, variables, state equations, thermometry. First law of Thermodynamics: work, heat, phase transformations. Second law of Thermodynamics: irreversible processes, entropy. Kinetic theory of gases. Introduction to statistical mechanics.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 130 and PCS 623) or (PCS 130 and MTH 380) or (PCS 130 and MTH 304) or (PCS 125 and PCS 211 and MTH 410)
• PCS 350 - Computational Methods in Medical Physics
This course covers the basics of scientific programming and introduces the student to common computational methods with examples from medical and biological physics. It will cover topics such as random number generation, Monte Carlo methods, random walks, numerical solutions to ordinary and partial differential equations for initial-value and boundary-value problems, modelling/parameter fitting of real systems, and cellular automata. When time permits, this course also covers the Ising spin model and fractals.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 622 or (MTH 501 and MTH 430)
• PCS 352 - Nuclear Physics/Radiation Protection

Introduction to nuclear physics. Nuclear structure and binding energy. Nuclear decays, radioactivity and nuclear reactions. Interaction of radiation with matter. Introduction to dosimetry and dose calculations.

Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1.5 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 400 or PCS 401) and (MTH 304 or MTH 380 or MTH 410 or co-requisite PCS 623)
Co-Requisites: See prerequisite information
• PCS 354 - Radiation Biology
Introduction to basic physics and chemistry of radiation interactions, free radicals, oxidation and reduction. Subcellular and cellular effects: killing, repair, sensitization and protection. Measurement methods. Survival curves and their significance. Modification of the radiation response. Tissue effects, genetic and carcinogenic effects, mutations, hazards. Effects of heat on tissue. Thermal dosimetry. Biology of Thermal Potentiation of Radiotherapy. High temperature thermal therapy.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites:
• PCS 358 - Mechanics
This course will cover topics relevant to Medical Physics on dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies: center of mass; three dimensional motion of particles; kinematics and dynamics of rotational motion; motion of rigid bodies; mechanical oscillations and waves; coupled oscillations; introduction to fluid dynamics; motion in resistive fluids.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 120 and MTH 330) or [PCS 211 and (MTH 312 or MTH 425)]
• PCS 400 - Quantum Physics I
Blackbody radiation. Planck quantization of the Harmonic Oscillator. Photoelectric effect. Photons. Bohr model of hydrogenic ions. Matter waves. Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Review of complex numbers. The Schrödinger Equation in one dimension. Wave functions. Stationary states. Quantization of energy. Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues. Infinite square well. Harmonic oscillator. Superposition of eigenfunctions. Schrödinger equation in three dimensions. The hydrogen atom.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: CHY 344 and (MTH 312 or MTH 330 or MTH 425)
Antirequisites: PCS 401
• PCS 401 - Quantum Mechanics I

Review of Bohr's model, matter waves and complex variables. Schrödinger Equation. Wave functions. Stationary states. Quantization of energy. Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues. Probability interpretation, expectation values. Infinite and finite square wells; barriers, tunnelling. Harmonic oscillator. Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Measurements in Quantum Mechanics. Hermitian operators. Hilbert Space. Superposition of eigenstates. Schrödinger equation in three dimensions. Central potentials. The hydrogen atom.

Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: (PCS 300) and (MTH 312 or MTH 330 or MTH 425)
Antirequisites: PCS 400
• PCS 405 - Medical Imaging
Diagnostic radiology with X-rays, X-ray transmission computed tomography. The physics of radioisotope imaging, emission computed tomography, clinical applications of radioisotope imaging. Diagnostic ultrasound, clinical applications and biological aspects of diagnostic ultrasound. Nuclear magnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance pulse sequences and relaxation processes and their measurement; image acquisition and reconstruction. The mathematics of image formation and image processing.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites:
• PCS 406 - Radiation Protection/Health Physics
External radiation protection. Internal dosimetry and radiation protection. Radiation exposure from background and man-made sources. Radiation levels and regulations.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites:
• PCS 407 - Radiation Therapy
Introduction to radiation therapy physics. Radiation therapy units. Interaction of radiation with tissue. Dosimetry of a single beam of x-ray. Beam calibration and patient dose calculation. Combination of beams and treatment planning. Brachytherapy. Radiation detection. Measuring radiation and radiation protection.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1.5 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites:
• PCS 40A/B - Medical Physics - Thesis

A laboratory or theoretical research project in medical physics or related topics under the supervision of a faculty member. A thesis document is required. Students must be in the 4th year of the Medical Physics program to register in this course. A student may petition the Course Coordinator to have this required course replaced by two other courses to be chosen in consultation with the Program Director.

Weekly Contact: Lecture: 4 hrs./4 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr./1 hr.
GPA weight: 2.00
Billing Units: 1/1
Count: 2.00
• PCS 450 - Directed Project I
This course makes it possible for one or more students to work under the guidance of a faculty member on a project in a specific area of Physics not covered in depth in any other course. The work done for this course must result in an oral or written presentation and may contain an element of originality. Enrolment in this course requires approval by the Program Director.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Consent: Departmental consent required
• PCS 510 - Fundamentals of Astrophysics
This course presents a mathematical and conceptual treatment of basic astronomical ideas, stressing observations and theoretical principles. Phenomena which currently enjoy mass appeal (black holes, extraterrestrial life, etc.) will be explored from the scientific point of view. Topics include: electromagnetic spectrum, cosmology, galaxies, star formation, stellar properties, star death, and exobiology.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 110 or PCS 130 or (PCS 125 and PCS 211)
• PCS 520 - Nanophysics
Introductory course on nanotechnology and applications in biology and medicine. Physics at nano-scale of nano-particles and nano-devices. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructures. Magnetic and optical effects at nano-scale. Transport properties and nanotechnology.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 227
• PCS 521 - Mathematical Physics
Introduction to complex variables and their role in physics. Taylor formula, truncation error and round-off error. Nonlinear interpolation and curve fitting. Numerical integration. Ordinary differential equations, systems of linear differential equations. Differential equations of first and second order and their applications in physics. Numerical solutions of non-linear differential equations. All topics will be illustrated with physics examples including, but not limited to, damped oscillations, forced oscillations and resonance, motion with variable acceleration, motion in a viscous fluid. Use of MATLAB programming language.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites:
Antirequisites: MTH 501
• PCS 530 - Cellular Biophysics
This course presents physical principles important to the operation of biological systems such as entropy, diffusion, cellular electricity, cellular motor forces, mechanical properties of the cell, and selected topics from radiation biophysics, biological switches, sensory physics, waves, self-organization, and biological complexity.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 227
• PCS 550 - Directed Project II
This course makes possible for one or more students to work under the guidance of a faculty member on a project in a specific area of Physics not covered in depth in any other course. The work done for this course must result in an oral or written presentation and may contain an element of originality. Enrolment for this course requires approval by the Program Director.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Consent: Departmental consent required
• PCS 581 - Advanced Topics in Astronomy
The scientific method of investigation will be applied to an in-depth presentation of contemporary astronomical research on cosmology, parallel universes, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, wormholes, Dark Matter, galaxy formation and evolution, Dark Energy, exobiology, the Drake equation and related topics.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Liberal Studies: UL
Prerequisites:
Custom Requisites: Not available to students in the Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science.
• PCS 622 - Mathematical Methods in Medical Physics

Physics and Medical Physics applications of Dirac delta function, Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Laplace's equation solutions. Transport phenomena. Applications of partial differential equations and boundary value problems illustrated with solutions of wave and diffusion equations. This course uses MATLAB as its programming language.

Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 521
• PCS 623 - Biostatistics
Introduction to experimental design, data presentation and statistics in biomedical sciences with a focus on application and interpretation. Fundamentals of probability including discrete and continuous models. Randomization and sample size. Foundations of statistical inference, hypothesis testing, p-value, confidence intervals, regression and correlation. Elementary non-parametric statistical methods. Presentation and communication of statistical data. Use of graphical and statistical software.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: MTH 231
Antirequisites: MTH 380
• PCS 624 - Electromagnetism II
Solving Poisson and Laplace equations via method of images and separation of variables. Multipole expansion for electrostatics, electric dipoles, polarization in dielectrics. Magnetic vector potential. Multipole expansion in magnetostatics, magnetic dipoles, magnetization in matter, Maxwell's equations in matter. Boundary conditions. Poynting?s Theorem. Electromagnetic waves in matter. Electromagnetic Radiation.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Tutorial: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 228
• PCS 700 - Quantum Mechanics II
Operators. Commuting and non-commuting observables. The Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Measurement in Quantum Mechanics. Collapse of the wave-function. Angular momentum - eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Matrix representations of operators and wave functions. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Spin. Time-independent perturbation theory. Fine structure. The Zeeman effect. Identical particles, atoms and solids. Variational calculations. The helium atom. Finite basis set calculations.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 401 and (MTH 309 or MTH 312 or MTH 425 or MTH 430)
• PCS 724 - Condensed Matter Physics/Materials
Properties of materials, crystal structure, types of bonding, crystal vibrations. Dielectrics, metals and semiconductors. Free-electron model and conductivity in metals. Band theory in metals and semiconductors. The p-n junctions, transistors and other solid state devices. Phase transitions in ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and other materials. Surface properties. Biomaterials and nanostructures.
Weekly Contact: Lecture: 3 hrs. Lab: 1 hr.
GPA weight: 1.00
Billing Units: 1
Count: 1.00
Prerequisites: PCS 300 and (MTH 312 or MTH 330 or MTH 425)