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ENH440 [BIOSTATISTICS] WEEKLY LOG

 WEEK # (week starting) As we move through the materials and examples, the background colour changes from  green to  yellow. ;  (Note that green - future - is only approximate). In this way you can see what we have already covered, and what we should be covering next. week #1 week #2 week #3   Sept 23 Displaying data in histogram, normal (Gaussian) distribution. Non-normal distribution examples, calculation of mean, median, mode as indicators of central tendency.  Confidence limits around the mean, and interpretation. Summary examples. Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture are Here week #4 Sept 30 Introduction to Null Hypothesis and scientific method of enquiry. Review of sampling theory in epidemiology: target population, random sample, sampling error, systematic error, bias, normal error, Introduction to hypothesis-testing and comparison of two means, rephrasing as a null hypothesis and concept of testing the null-hypothesis (H0), rejecting/not rejecting, Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture are Here     Please note a slight change has been made near the end related to the   standard  deviation of the first group. week #5 Review:.  Clarification of the background to forming a null hypothesis Part 1: Practice with single group statistics Part 2: Practice H0-testing using t-test.  Example from blood-testing for mercury in northern Ont. and relation to fish consumption, rationale, comparison of calculated t vs critical t, probability statement, and conclusion.  Especially note the importance of the denominator of the t-test and how it may be reduced by increasing the "N" Part 3: Practice with Probability values Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture are Here    Practice problems on this material:  2,  13,  16, 17, 18,  21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31,   - are being added on the question page.  Answers to these problems are   shown on the solutions page. week #6 READING / STUDY WEEK week #7 MID-TERM TEST week #8 CANCELLED week #9 (Nov 4) REVIEW of t-test material to date. Special case for t-test used on Paired data; what is pairing?, and why does this offer a better result IF USED PROPERLY!  Comparison with t-test for UNPAIRED data Introduction to ANOVA Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture Here       General practice problems on this material from the course text:     Try p.306, Q#1, Q#2,  Q#13  (Answers on page 633)  I also     recommend using the slightly more simple formulae from the lectures.       More specific practice problems on this material can be found     on the Proteus  question page.         Try: #  3,   15,   19,   22,   23,   43,   49,   51,   52,   53,     (Answers to these problems are shown on the solutions page.) week #10 (Nov 11) Contingency tables: testing the null hypothesis using Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Test, odds ratios and relative risk.  Applications and interpretations. Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture Here    General practice problems on this material from the course text:     Try p.224, Q#2, Q#6, Q#7, Q#8,  Q#9 a, Q#10 b,c,   (Answers on page 627)  You can ignore the calculation of the confidence limits around the odds ratio, but you should remember that if the CL include 1.00, you are NOT permitted to claim statistical significance regardless of the results of the Chi-sq or Fisher's Exact Test.    Also from Chapter 9, try Q#11, Q#15, Q#16, Q#19, Q#20 b, Q#23   As before, you may find the formulae from the lectures and the PowerPoint* notes a little easier to use than those included in the text.   More specific practice problems on this material can be found     on the Proteus  question page.         Try: #  1, 6, 9, 20, 28, 29, 35, 38, 41, 50, 54     (Answers to these problems are shown on the solutions page.) NOTE:  I will be in the office Friday Nov 15 0915 to 1200 and Monday Nov 18 1130-1515 week #11 (Nov 18 Simple Regression Models for two continuous variables; drawing the regression line, interpretation. Testing hypothesis that slope of regression line is zero; Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture Here  Some general concept questions on regression can be found on p 498 etc. of the text: # 1, #4, #5, with answers on page 643. More specific practice problems on this material can be found on the Proteus   question page.  : 7, 8, 10, 11, 39, 40,  46, 49,   (Answers to these problems are shown on the solutions page.). (An error was found in the regression example shown in class Nov 18.        It has been corrected in the powerpoint set today, Nov 26) week #12 (Nov 25) Correlation; .. applications and interpretation Some of the PowerpointŪ slides used during today's lecture Here  Some general concept questions on correlation can be found on p452 etc. of the text: # 1, #13 (a, b, c), #17 (a, d),  with answers on page 641. A more specific practice problem can be found on the Proteus  question page.  # 49.  Also #39 calls for correlation to investigate the possible relationship between the two independent variables (after the regression analysis explores the relationship between each of them and the dependent variable separately. Finally, #48 is solved using correlation on select sets of data (not yet posted).   (Answers to these problems are shown on the solutions page.). week 13 (Dec 2) Challenge: :Which method do I use?"Review and examples, common mistakes and assumptions to avoid. General review, with many examples worked through.  Please note some clarification and additional information has been added to the question set and the solutions page. Final examination (Date DEC 5th, ENGINEERING BULDING rooms: LG/ 12, 13, 21, &  24)   If you want to see the formulae that will be supplied for the exam, click here BUT be warned.....  math symbols vary with the computer software, browser and release #.

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